Irving Massey received his B.A. from McGill University, MA’s from both Harvard and Columbia University, and his Ph.D. from Harvard. He taught at the SUNY University at Buffalo from 1964-1996. He has published many books, including Find You the Virtue: Ethics, Image, and Desire in Literature; The Uncreating Word: Romanticism and the Object; and most recently, The Neural Imagination: Aesthetic and Neuroscientific Approaches to the Arts (University of Texas Press, 2009). He is currently working on a book project entitled Necessary Nonsense: Five Domains.
Clara Bell, née Poynter (1835–1927), was an English translator fluent in French, German, Danish, Dutch, Italian, Norwegian, Russian, and Spanish, noted for her translations of works by Balzac, Georg Ebers, Huysmans, Ibsen, Maupassant, and others. She was educated in France, where she became fluent in French and German; she did not acquire her knowledge of the other languages until after her fortieth birthday. She spent most of her life in London. Bell was born in Westminster to architect Ambrose Poynter and Emma Forster; her brother was Sir Edward Poynter, a director of the National Gallery. She was a distant relation of Edward Burne-Jones and Rudyard Kipling. She was married to banker Robert Courtenay Bell (1816–1896) with whom she had six children, one of whom was Charles Francis Bell, who oversaw the Fine Art Department of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. Under the direction of George Saintsbury, Bell, Ellen Marriage, and Rachel Scott were responsible for translating the vast majority of Balzac’s Human Comedy into English, superseding earlier translations that had generally been regarded as stilted. The low pay that translators received at that time required Bell and her colleagues to complete work quickly, but her translations have nonetheless been noted for their close adherence to the source texts, and their high degree of readability. (Source: Wikipedia)
George Burnham Ives (1856-1930) was an American bibliographer, editor, and translator. A member of Salem’s prestigious Pickering family, Ives was a summa cum laude graduate of Harvard Law School, and went on to become the Assistant District Attorney of Essex County. Despite this auspicious background, on 12 May 1890 Ives plead guilty to charges of embezzlement and forgery, having been caught misappropriating tens of thousands of dollars from various trust funds as well as squandering his wife’s inheritance. He was sentenced to 8 1/2 years at Charlestown Prison and was disbarred for life. However, as a devoted student of French history and an accomplished linguist, Ives began a second career, from prison and continuing thereafter, as a distinguished and prolific literary translator, responsible for translating works by Balzac, Daudet, Gautier, Hugo, Maupassant, Mérimée, Sand, and others into English; he also edited an edition of the essays of Montaigne (the infamous “fig leaf” edition, in which sexually explicit passages were left untranslated). In later life, Ives produced the first comprehensive bibliography of the works of Oliver Wendell Holmes and worked as an editor at The Atlantic Monthly. (Source: Wikipedia)